SharePoint interview question

1. What is web Application in SharePoint?

1. In SharePoint Web Application is an IIS website.
2. From Central Admin we can create the web application. Each web application is associated with one IIS web site.
3. Once the web application is created, we can extend the web application in different zones.
4. For each web application, content database is created.
2. What is a site collection in SharePoint?
1. A site collection is a set of web sites.
2. Every site collection has top-level site, created when the site collection is created.
3. There might be multiple site collections in web application and each site collection may have a multiple child sites.

 What is web part?
Web Parts are the fundamental building blocks for Share Point user interface, and with them we can build and integrate many different types of applications.

4. What is Sandbox solution?
When user writing custom code then it is not trusted its failure causes on entire site. So the sandbox solution concept is used. In that case program is only written for particular site & solution is uploaded in the same site. The solution size limit is decided at the time of site creation & if size increases or code showing bad performance then it is easy to administrator to stop the working of solution.

5. What is Ghosted and Unghosted Page in SharePoint?
A ghosted page is a page in SharePoint website which is not stored in the database instead it reference to a file which exists in the server’s file system. These reference files are common for all the website/site collection within that SharePoint server, i.e., if you modify a reference file then that change will reflect in all the websites/site collections within that SharePoint server automatically. So we can say these reference files are used as template.

The default master page of SharePoint “default.master” is a well known example of ghosted page. “default.master” page is located in the directory "C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\web server extensions\12\TEMPLATE\Global". If you do some changes in the “default.master” then this change will automatically reflect in all the websites within that SharePoint server.

To create a new site in SharePoint, a site template is used. Site template contains description of all the pages, webparts within the pages, master page used, custom lists, etc. for the web site to be created. You can define a page ghostable in the “onet.xml” file of the site template.

Unghosted Page in SharePoint

All the pages in a SharePoint website which are stored in the content database are referred as unghosted pages. All the unghosted pages are specific to that SharePoint website only, i.e., changes done in an unghosted pages will not reflect in other websites within that SharePoint server.
If a new website is created with a site template which contains a page defined as “unghostable” in the “onet.xml”, then that page will be stored in the content database of new website created and will not reference to the page available in the site template folder.

If a ghosted page is modified in the SharePoint designer, it will become unghosted. For example if a master page is customized in SharePoint Designer, SharePoint stores a modified version of the master page in the content database and also it breaks the reference to the “default.master” file on the “C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\web server extensions\12\TEMPLATE\Global“

6. Mention the types of authentications available for SharePoint 2010 ?
The types of authentications that are available for SharePoint 2010 are of 3 types.
They are:
1) Claims Authentication,  2) Windows Authentication,  3) Forms-based Authentication

7. What is meant by User Profile service?
The User Profile Service will allows you for configuring and managing User profile properties, Audiences, Profile synchronization settings, organization browsing and management settings, and My Site settings.

8 .What is meant by Performance Point Services ?
The Performance Pint Services will allow the users to monitor and analyze a business by building dashboards, scorecards, and key performance indicators (KPIs).

9. What is meant by Secure Store Service (SSS) ?
Secure Store Service is nothing but a secure database for storing credentials that are associated with application IDs.

10.What are the Methods of Backup and Recovery in SharePoint 2010?
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides a broad range of levels for performing backups, including the entire farm, farm configuration information, site collections, sub sites or lists.

SharePoint Server 2010 uses two different tools to configure backup and recovery.
1. Central Administration: Central Administration provides a user interface where SharePoint Administrators will be prompted via menu structures to select the information that needs to be backed up.
2. Windows PowerShell: Windows PowerShell is a command line tool that provides SharePoint administrators a way to perform backup and recovery with additional options such as file compression or working with SQL snapshots.

Listed below are a few of the benefits available when working with Windows PowerShell

Windows PowerShell scripts can be developed and scheduled (with Windows Task Scheduler), whereas Central Administration is used for single-use backups and restores.

Windows PowerShell has the advantage of running against SQL snapshots instead of the production database. One of the parameters of the Windows PowerShell command will cause a SQL snapshot to be generated, and then Windows PowerShell will run the action against the snapshot instead of the production database. This will reduce the resource impact of the backup operation on the production environment.

With Windows PowerShell, SharePoint administrators will have more granular control of options for the backup or restore.

11. What is a workflow?
Workflow is the definition, execution and automation of business processes where tasks, information or documents are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of procedural rules.
Organizations use workflows to coordinate tasks between people and synchronize data between systems, with the ultimate goal of improving organizational efficiency, responsiveness and profitability.
Workflows automate the flow of employee tasks and activities, reducing the time the process took to complete as well as potential errors caused by human interaction.

12.What are content types? 
A content type is a flexible and reusable WSS type definition (or we can a template) that defines the columns and behavior for an item in a list or a document in a document library. For example, you can create a content type for a leave approval document with a unique set of columns, an event handler, and its own document template and attach it with a document library/libraries

13.What security levels are assigned to users for a SharePoint Website? 
Security levels are assigned by the administrator who is adding the user. There are four levels by default and additional levels can be composed as necessary.
* Reader - Has read-only access to the Web site.
* Contributor - Can add content to existing document libraries and lists.
* Web Designer - Can create lists and document libraries and customize pages in the Web site.
* Administrator - Has full control of the Web site.

14.Which are default master pages in Sharepoint 2010?
1. v4.master - This is default master page.
2. default.master - this is used to support the 2007 user interface
3. minimal.master,4. simple.master- it is used for accessdenied.aspx, confirmation.aspx, error.aspx, login.aspx, reqacc.aspx, signout.aspx & webdeleted.aspx pages.

15. What are content databases? 
A content database can hold all the content for one or more site collections.

16. What is an application pool? 
A group of one or more URLs that are served by a particular worker process or set of worker processes.
In Internet Information Services (IIS), a group of one or more URLs served by a worker process.
They are important as they provide a way for multiple sites to run on the same server but still have their own worker processes and identity

16.What is a search scope? 
A search scope defines a subset of information in the search index. Users can select a search scope when performing a search

17. What Has Changed with SSP in SharePoint 2010 ?
 In SharePoint 2010 Shared Service Providers (SSP's) are replaced by Service Applications. Services are no longer combined into a SSP. They are running independent as a service application. The service application architecture is now also built into  SharePoint Foundation 2010, in contrast to the Shared Services Provider (SSP) architecture that was only part of Office SharePoint Server 2007.
A key benefit here is that all services are installed by default and there is no SSP setup

 18. What are the various zones in SharePoint?

- Zones provide the separate logical paths of authentication for the same web application.
- 5 zones can be created for each web application :
a. Default
b. Intranet
c. Extranet
d. Internet and
e. Custom

19. Explain a.) BDC b.) BCS

a.) BDC also called Business Data Catalogue is used to connect to an external database and read it in SharePoint. 

b.) BCS also called Business connectivity Services is new in SharePoint2010. BCS aids in reading and writing into the external Database.

20. What is WSP (Web solution package)?

When developer does any customization or enhancement in SharePoint, then there are many items that need to be deployed like assemblies, resource files, features, images, application pages, site definitions etc. It will be a very tedious task to deploy these items separately on development, staging and production. So SharePoint introduced a solution package which is powerful deployment tool. Web solution package is a cabinet file that contains assemblies, resource files, features, images, application pages, site definitions etc. into single file.

Note: A solution package is stored as a cabinet (CAB) file, with the file extension .wsp. This file contains all the files to be deployed. If you rename the file extension to .cab, you can open the solution and explore its content .It can be deployed using the command-line tool stsadm or PowerShell cmdlets.

21. Whats New with SPAlerts in SharePoint 2010?

In SharePoint 2007, alerts were send only through e-mails, but in SharePoint 2010 users can also send an alert to mobile devices as SMS Message. A New property DeliveryChannels is introduced to indicate, whether the alert is delivered as E-mail or as an SMS Message

22. Difference beween SharePoint 2007 and Sharepoint 2010?
·         Ribbon user interface has been introduced in 2010
·         SSPin 2007  gives way to Service application in 2010. Individual services can be configured independently and third-party companies can add services to the platform
·         Sandbox solution: You can now enable site administrators to upload custom user code by using sandboxed solutions. For more information
·         List view threshold limit of 5000 items has been introduced to overcome performance issue.
·         Sharepoint designer improved giving administrator added control
·         Alerts can be send through email also.
·         CA page redesigned.

23. Featured get enabled on enabling publishing feature
Permission level added:Approve,restricted read
New groups added :Approvers,designers,hierarcy mmanagers
Webpart added : content query, media web part
Timer jobs enabled :notification timer job, scheduled approval.
Change in settings page: navigation, content and structure added

24. Sharepoint 2010 difference between list and document library
  • Can have attachments
  • Have major versions only
  • Do not have Check-in/Check-out features
  • Incoming email settings is not available in lists .
  • Explorer view is not there in list.
  • Cannot have attachments (files are directly in the library)
  • Have both minor (draft) and major (published) versioning
  • Have Check-in/Check-Out

25 . What is Application Pool ?

Application Pool is more in relation to IIS than of SharePoint
2. As you create and manage web applications using SharePoint, it gives you to create, manage and associate web applications with Application Pool. So you see the Application Pool creation and configuration options in SharePoint but its more related to IIS
3. An application pool provides you with a way of isolating Web sites from each other even though they are being hosted on a common server. Each application pool is given its own set of server resources. That way, if a Web site crashes, it won’t effect sites in other application pools.
A good example of this is a Web site with a memory leak. If all of the Web sites hosted on a particular server were to share system resources, and one of the Web sites had a memory leak, it could potentially take memory away from the other hosted sites. If the leaky site were in its own application pool though, the memory leak would not effect any other site because each application pool has its own server resources (including memory).

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